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In other words, why are some memories stable over decades, while others fade within minutes? Using mouse models, Caltech researchers have now determined that strong, stable memories are encoded by "teams" of neurons all firing in synchrony, providing redundancy that enables these memories to persist over time. The research has implications for understanding how memory might be affected after brain damage, such as by strokes or Alzheimer's disease.
The work was done in the laboratory of Carlos Lois, research professor of biology, and is described in a paper that appears in the August 23 of the journal Science. Led by postdoctoral scholar Walter Gonzalez, the team developed a test to examine mice's neural activity as they learn about and remember a new place. In the test, a mouse was placed in a straight enclosure, about 5 feet long with white walls.
Unique symbols marked different locations along the walls -- for example, a bold plus sign near the right-most end and an angled slash near the center. Sugar water a treat for mice was placed at either end of the track.
While the mouse explored, the researchers measured the activity of specific neurons in the mouse hippocampus the region of the brain where new memories are formed that are known to encode for places. When an animal was initially placed in the track, it was unsure of what to do and wandered left and right until it came across the sugar water.
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In these cases, single neurons were activated when the mouse took notice of a symbol on the wall. But over multiple experiences with the track, the mouse became familiar with it and remembered the locations of the sugar. As the mouse became more familiar, more and more neurons were activated in synchrony by seeing each symbol on the wall. Essentially, the mouse was recognizing where it was with respect to each unique symbol.
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To study how memories fade over time, the researchers then withheld the mice from the track for up to 20 days. Upon returning to the track after this break, mice that had formed strong memories encoded by higher numbers of neurons remembered the task quickly.
Even though some neurons showed different activity, the mouse's memory of the track was clearly identifiable when analyzing the activity of large groups of neurons. In other words, using groups of neurons enables the brain to have redundancy and still recall memories even if some of the original neurons fall silent or are damaged. Gonzalez explains: "Imagine you have a long and complicated story to tell. In order to preserve the story, you could tell it to five of your friends and then occasionally get together with all of them to re-tell the story and help each other fill in any gaps that an individual had forgotten.
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Additionally, each time you re-tell the story, you could bring new friends to learn and therefore help preserve it and strengthen the memory. In an analogous way, your own neurons help each other out to encode memories that will persist over time. Memory is so fundamental to human behavior that any impairment to memory can severely impact our daily life.
Memory loss that occurs as part of normal aging can be a significant handicap for senior citizens. Moreover, memory loss caused by several diseases, most notably Alzheimer's, has devastating consequences that can interfere with the most basic routines including recognizing relatives or remembering the way back home. This work suggests that memories might fade more rapidly as we age because a memory is encoded by fewer neurons, and if any of these neurons fail, the memory is lost.
This past weekend alone I took photos and videos—and any parent can empathize with trying to get all kids to look at the camera, let alone smile, at the same time. With this many photos from everyday life, my Google Photos library is full of moments—many worth remembering—but sifting through all of these photos can be hard.scharovsoipo.tk
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To address this, we came up with a few new ways for you to get more out of Google Photos and relive the moments that matter. Certain points in the year make me extra nostalgic—birthdays, trips and holidays most of all—so I pull out my phone to look at old photos. While you might recognize this stories format from social media, these memories are your personal media, privately presented to you so you can sit back and enjoy some of your best moments.
To make it easy to find photos or screenshots that contain text—like a recipe—you can now search by the text in your photos. One of the best parts of revisiting your memories is sharing them with the people who made those moments special.
2. Memory Storage
And as always, photos you share in Google Photos are the same quality as the photos you back up and you can easily save photos shared with you to your library. Decorating your home with printed photos serves as a daily reminder of life's meaningful moments--big and small. You can already use Google Photos to quickly find and make your memories into a photo book.
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Now, you can use the same time-saving magic to print individual photos.