Flood, Flash and Pheromones

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Flood, Flash and Pheromones. Romance - Suspense. This author has not entered their information for this social networking page. The object of the present invention is to obtain a possibility to reduce infestation of Brassica vegetable plants by C.


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The object of the present invention is to obtain a possibility to determine the quantitative presence as well as the emergence time of C. A further object of the invention is to obtain an environmentally acceptable control of C.


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  8. One of these gall midges is C. The female C. Feeding damage near the growing tips induces distortion and gall-like symptoms. When the larvae have become fully developed they will go down into the soil and form cocoons, in which they will pass into the chrysalis stage and then either emerge to start the next generation cycle, or begin a diapause, which can be one or two winters long. In springtime, the larvae will leave the winter cocoon and create a summer cocoon in which it will develop to chrysalis and then to an adult midge.. The emergence is determined by temperature and moisture.

    Mating is thought to occur shortly after emergence. Both sexes are known to leave the emergence field due to crop rotation usually not a cruciferous crop and once mated females will look for a field with a Brassica crop to lay their eggs. One reason for high damage levels is the lack of a good monitoring method for determining the time of emergence. The monitoring method used today means sifting and floatation of soil samples, which are then analysed under microscope to determine in which development stage the chrysalises are.

    The analyses are carried out by someone skilled in the art and are very time consuming. Soil samples of a few fields are, however, only analysed. As the emergence is dependent on the local climate moisture and temperature the accuracy of the monitoring becomes low with regard to other fields. Furthermore, the adults appear very suddenly and for a short time period, and as the control actions must be carried out prior to egg laying, the method is very uncertain.

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    It requires a very efficient communication system as well, in order to reach all farmers with the results of the prognostication monitoring and recommendation concerning the time for controlling action. Currently, the only available monitoring method is based on the exposition of yellow pan traps filled with water and a detergent. The traps do not catch species-specifically, but rather all phytophagous insects are attracted and, therefore, the analysis of the trap content is laborious and the tiny swede midges can be detected and identified only by well trained personnel.

    Furthermore, the trapping efficiency of yellow traps is low for the swede midge and, with rather low populations, the crop is frequently damaged by C. Temperature-based forecasting methods have been developed but failed to give accurate, field-specific prognosis. In pheromone based monitoring methods a limited number of traps baited with a pheromone related to the intended insect, in particular a sexual pheromone, in synthetic form, are used.

    A pheromone trap is the most sensitive monitoring system known today. Using such, even very low population densities can be detected.

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    Since pheromones are highly specific with respect to the attracted insect species, traps baited with such pheromones catch predominantly the targeted species, which greatly facilitates the analysis of the traps content and the detection of the respective species. Noxious insects, as well as all other insects, can vary a lot in number from year to year and their occurrence during the season may vary too.

    The difficulty is thus to know if and when they need to be controlled. The trap catches will, however, provide an answer to three essential questions, viz: 1 if the insect is present in the field; 2 when the insect is present in the field; and 3 approximately how many there are. The answer to the first question is essential to prevent or eliminate unnecessary control treatments as a matter of precaution, using insecticides. Having the answer to question no.

    Pheromone baited traps do not provide an exact measure of the population density but the catch result denotes if there is a low, an average, or a high risk infestation. Pheromone based monitoring systems are used today for about different noxious insects, in particular moths. Unnecessary control treatment can thus be avoided, which not only reduces the farmer's costs but also limits the adverse effects on the environment.

    Should the trap catches indicate that control treatments are necessary, one will be able to carry out the control at the most sensitive development stage of the insect. Chemical insecticides to noxious insects will, with regard to the impact on the environment and their quite often broad control spectrum i.


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    Such methods utilize basic knowledge of the ecology and biochemistry of the specific insects. The precision, i. The methods, which are the commercially most successful ones, are based on the sexual pheromones or other pheromones of insects. The use of pheromones in insect pest management is based on the use of naturally occurring compounds at naturally occurring amounts and concentrations, which means maximum consideration of the environment. When controlling noxious insects with sexual pheromones one imitates and utilizes the natural situation in which a female attracts a male by emitting the sexual pheromone, which will be spread as a mist in the wind direction.

    A male who comes into the pheromone plume responds by flying against the wind towards the female.

    For control purposes, a large number of synthetic pheromone sources are applied in an area that will thus be flooded with pheromone. In this scent environment the female's own signal will be drowned and the male will have no possibility to find her. The technique is called mating disruption and is a commonly spread control method. It has been shown that females use a sexual pheromone in order to attract the males in approximately 10 gall midge species for a review, see Harris and Foster, ; Hillbur, However, chemical identifications of pheromones have so far only been made in the pea midge, C.

    It has now been found possible to control C.

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    Larvae of C. Infested growing tips were placed on a peat-soil mixture where larvae pupated when they had completed their development. The pots containing the pupae were stored in cages, and from the emerging adults a continuous laboratory culture was established. Similarly, larvae from a field near Ins Canton Bern, Switzerland were added to the culture in Candid Charm.

    Plants were kept free of aphids and white flies by spraying them, if necessary, once with pymetrozine 0. In there, they were placed into cages 50x50x50 cm made of perspex with the two side walls consisting of a fine-meshed screen. The cages contained midges, males and females that were allowed to oviposit on the plants for 24 hrs. Then the plants were removed, replaced by the next batch, and incubated at the above mentioned conditions. Every day, the tips of the plants, where larvae became visible days after oviposition, were misted with tap water.

    If larvae were used to supply the culture, aboveground plant parts were cut off on day 17 after oviposition before the pots with substrate containing the pupae were placed in the oviposition cages where midges were allowed to hatch. If midges were supposed to be used for EAG-work or for the collection of pheromone gland extracts, aboveground plant parts were cut off on day Males for wind tunnel experiments were prevented from getting a chance to mate by placing glass cylinders over pots. In the morning after the night when the first midges had hatched, these cylinders, containing usually only males, were set aside before females started to emerge.

    After emergence, males and females were transferred to separate cages. Gland extracts were prepared by excising the ovipositors of females exhibiting calling behaviour, i. The ovipositors were collected in a vial kept in liquid nitrogen and then extracted for min in redistilled hexane LabScan.

    tielethbfasuppver.tk Calling females were collected from the laboratory culture and submersed in batches in hexane p. The supernatant was then decanted and concentrated to the highest concentration tested by blowing off the hexane with N 2. Male antennal response to ovipositor extracts was analysed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection GC-EAD.